The intelligent detection and collision avoidance system is a vehicle-mounted intelligent monitoring system developed for the business scenario of foreign object encroachment on the rail line to realize the active protection function for the train operation environment. The system uses vision and radar equipment to synthetically sense environmental information such as signals, track lines, turnouts, etc., and automatically detects other vehicles traveling in the same direction and in the opposite direction or stationary in front of the vehicle, pedestrians trespassing on the track, equipment left on the track, billboards or other obstacles that affect the normal movement of the train. The system calibrates the coordinates of the detected obstacle targets and compares them with the rail travel area of this vehicle. For targets that affect the train travel, the system automatically determines the danger level and makes corresponding warning prompt according to the danger level, and at the same time outputs reasonable vehicle control instructions or suggestions to assist the driver or unmanned system to make corresponding deceleration or braking operations. The system monitors the train forward track environment in real time through intelligent algorithms, which can realize the autonomous collision prevention warning of this vehicle and strengthen the level of train safety protection.